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    北大教授张晓波谈写博士论文:平常心是道

    来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2020年02月22日 21:23:00
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    (静)(水)(禅)(音)(,平)(常)(心)(是)(道)(
    “成)(功)(的)(学)(者)(和)(企)(业)(家)(有)(什)(么)(相)(同)(之)(处)(?”
    ——张)(老)(师)(抛)(给)(同)(学)(们)(的)(第)(一)(个)(问)(题)(,让)(大)(家)(在)(反)(思)(自)(身)(、探)(寻)(两)(种)(角)(色)(共)(同)(点)(的)(过)(程)(中)(建)(立)(求)(学)(路)(上)(的)(自)(信)(。
    为)(了)(理)(想)(矢)(志)(不)(渝)(、面)(对)(困)(难)(一)(往)(无)(前)(、大)(敌)(当)(前)(章)(法)(不)(乱)(,这)(都)(是)(企)(业)(家)(和)(成)(功)(学)(者)(的)(共)(同)(素)(质)(,有)(了)(这)(些)(素)(质)(,企)(业)(家)(离)(成)(功)(的)(学)(者)(只)(有)(一)(步)(之)(遥)(:一)(颗)(平)(常)(心)(。
    一)(位)(大)(法)(师)(曾)(经)(为)(张)(老)(师)(讲)(解)(“生)(活)(禅)(”:平)(常)(心)(是)(道)(。只)(有)(内)(心)(平)(静)(,才)(能)(看)(清)(道)(理)(;不)(必)(过)(于)(忧)(虑)(,放)(松)(心)(情)(,“JustDoit!”。
    “问)(问)(自)(己)(的)(发)(心)(”,张)(老)(师)(语)(调)(很)(轻)(,语)(意)(很)(重)(。
    读)(博)(士)(,是)(为)(了)(给)(自)(己)(脸)(上)(贴)(金)(,还)(是)(为)(了)(在)(学)(术)(上)(有)(所)(成)(就)(?是)(为)(了)(“千)(金)(散)(尽)(还)(复)(来)(”,还)(是)(为)(了)(让)(事)(业)(插)(上)(知)(识)(的)(翅)(膀)(,上)(九)(天)(揽)(月)(、下)(五)(洋)(捉)(鳖)(?
    “有)(的)(同)(学)(很)(着)(急)(,恨)(不)(得)(天)(天)(发)(最)(好)(的)(杂)(志)(,于)(是)(只)(好)(选)(择)(短)(平)(快)(的)(题)(目)(来)(研)(究)(,这)(样)(很)(难)(有)(大)(的)(成)(就)(”,张)(老)(师)(提)(醒)(同)(学)(们)(不)(要)(“求)(成)(心)(切)(”,要)(根)(据)(自)(己)(的)(学)(术)(兴)(趣)(选)(择)(一)(个)(切)(入)(点)(,慢)(慢)(去)(研)(究)(。
    “成)(功)(的)(学)(生)(有)(一)(个)(共)(同)(点)(:知)(道)(自)(己)(要)(什)(么)(!”,张)(老)(师)(总)(结)(道)(,这)(就)(是)(为)(什)(么)(他)(的)(学)(生)(往)(往)(都)(能)(从)(读)(博)(第)(一)(天)(起)(就)(静)(下)(心)(来)(,享)(受)(研)(究)(、发)(现)(的)(过)(程)(。
    大)(山)(深)(处)(的)(“经)(济)(学)(”
    经)(济)(学)(真)(知)(藏)(在)(哪)(里)(?对)(于)(张)(晓)(波)(教)(授)(来)(说)(,就)(在)(贵)(州)(大)(山)(深)(处)(,就)(在)(贵)(州)(最)(贫)(困)(的)(农)(村)(里)(:那)(里)(的)(孩)(子)(比)(其)(他)(地)(区)(同)(龄)(的)(孩)(子)(矮)(了)(许)(多)(,稚)(嫩)(的)(肩)(膀)(过)(早)(地)(承)(担)(起)(了)(生)(活)(重)(担)(;那)(里)(一)(场)(婚)(礼)(铺)(张)(浪)(费)(,背)(后)(却)(是)(农)(民)(卖)(血)(换)(来)(的)(“份)(子)(钱)(”。
    为)(什)(么)(人)(情)(比)(生)(命)(还)(贵)(?
    为)(什)(么)(得)(到)(了)(补)(贴)(的)(孩)(子)(,依)(然)(骨)(瘦)(如)(柴)(、营)(养)(不)(良)(?
    这)(些)(问)(题)(深)(深)(地)(困)(扰)(着)(张)(晓)(波)(老)(师)(和)(他)(的)(研)(究)(团)(队)(。大)(山)(深)(处)(,只)(剩)(下)(了)(晒)(着)(太)(阳)(、嚼)(着)(世)(事)(的)(老)(人)(,没)(有)(一)(个)(年)(轻)(人)(慰)(藉)(他)(们)(的)(孤)(独)(。
    “要)(像)(小)(孩)(子)(一)(样)(看)(世)(界)(;不)(要)(忽)(略)(第)(一)(印)(象)(,尤)(其)(到)(一)(个)(新)(地)(方)(”,这)(是)(张)(晓)(波)(每)(次)(到)(贫)(困)(地)(区)(调)(研)(给)(自)(己)(定)(下)(的)(准)(则)(。经)(济)(学)(绝)(非)(满)(纸)(的)(模)(型)(、数)(据)(,一)(切)(思)(想)(发)(端)(于)(对)(现)(实)(的)(缜)(密)(观)(察)(和)(严)(谨)(思)(考)(。张)(晓)(波)(把)(自)(己)(的)(点)(滴)(观)(察)(都)(记)(在)(了)(“小)(本)(子)(”上)(——就)(是)(这)(些)(观)(察)(,就)(是)(这)(些)(日)(日)(夜)(夜)(与)(当)(地)(村)(民)(同)(饮)(一)(泉)(水)(、同)(住)(一)(栋)(屋)(的)(生)(活)(,给)(了)(张)(晓)(波)(学)(术)(的)(养)(分)(,让)(他)(真)(正)(厘)(清)(了)(许)(多)(经)(济)(现)(象)(。
    “先)(有)(了)(观)(察)(和)(想)(法)(,之)(后)(才)(是)(搜)(集)(数)(据)(去)(验)(证)(,发)(放)(调)(查)(问)(卷)(其)(实)(是)(最)(后)(一)(步)(”,张)(晓)(波)(的)(研)(究)(之)(路)(每)(一)(步)(都)(秉)(承)(着)(求)(真)(务)(实)(的)(作)(风)(,而)(不)(是)(“躲)(进)(小)(楼)(成)(一)(统)(”、做)(书)(斋)(经)(济)(学)(家)(。
    选)(题)(、选)(导)(师)(,都)(要)(选)(“原)(始)(股)(”
    有)(了)(一)(颗)(平)(常)(心)(,有)(了)(科)(学)(的)(研)(究)(方)(法)(,那)(如)(何)(从)(“弱)(水)(三)(千)(”的)(研)(究)(题)(目)(中)(选)(出)(“一)(瓢)(饮)(”呢)(?
    张)(老)(师)(首)(先)(建)(议)(同)(学)(们)(分)(析)(自)(己)(的)(比)(较)(优)(势)(,结)(合)(自)(己)(的)(历)(史)(、背)(景)(、社)(会)(网)(络)(来)(选)(取)(要)(研)(究)(的)(问)(题)(;同)(时)(,要)(回)(到)(自)(己)(的)(“发)(心)(”,选)(择)(自)(己)(真)(正)(感)(兴)(趣)(的)(题)(目)(。
    回)(想)(起)(自)(己)(当)(年)(求)(学)(异)(国)(的)(岁)(月)(,张)(晓)(波)(说)(,当)(时)(很)(多)(同)(学)(都)(选)(择)(时)(下)(热)(门)(的)(题)(目)(,但)(他)(始)(终)(对)(去)(华)(尔)(街)(赚)(钱)(兴)(趣)(寥)(寥)(,他)(更)(关)(心)(贫)(困)(问)(题)(,关)(心)(那)(些)(在)(水)(深)(火)(热)(中)(挣)(扎)(的)(人)(们)(。
    “选)(题)(目)(不)(要)(盲)(目)(跟)(风)(,因)(为)(风)(永)(远)(跟)(不)(上)(”,张)(老)(师)(说)(,那)(些)(为)(热)(点)(而)(写)(论)(文)(的)(同)(学)(今)(天)(都)(已)(经)(在)(学)(术)(界)(销)(声)(匿)(迹)(了)(,只)(有)(真)(正)(有)(价)(值)(的)(东)(西)(才)(会)(永)(世)(流)(传)(。而)(他)(多)(年)(来)(一)(直)(关)(注)(的)(贫)(困)(问)(题)(、不)(平)(等)(问)(题)(,今)(天)(已)(经)(成)(为)(整)(个)(社)(会)(真)(正)(关)(注)(的)(焦)(点)(:党)(的)(十)(九)(大)(报)(告)(指)(出)(,中)(国)(特)(色)(社)(会)(主)(义)(进)(入)(新)(时)(代)(,我)(国)(社)(会)(主)(要)(矛)(盾)(已)(经)(转)(化)(为)(人)(民)(日)(益)(增)(长)(的)(美)(好)(生)(活)(需)(要)(和)(不)(平)(衡)(不)(充)(分)(的)(发)(展)(之)(间)(的)(矛)(盾)(。社)(会)(不)(平)(等)(、不)(平)(衡)(问)(题)(已)(经)(进)(入)(高)(层)(视)(野)(,成)(为)(了)(最)(重)(要)(的)(民)(生)(问)(题)(。
    “最)(好)(选)(现)(在)(还)(比)(较)(冷)(,但)(以)(后)(可)(能)(热)(的)(题)(目)(”,张)(老)(师)(提)(醒)(大)(家)(在)(学)(术)(研)(究)(上)(亦)(不)(可)(缺)(乏)(远)(见)(,“原)(始)(股)(”对)(做)(学)(问)(同)(样)(是)(一)(个)(升)(值)(空)(间)(最)(大)(的)(选)(择)(。
    “先)(专)(后)(广)(”是)(张)(晓)(波)(传)(授)(的)(又)(一)(秘)(笈)(。他)(说)(,很)(多)(人)(喜)(欢)(写)(庞)(大)(题)(目)(的)(论)(文)(,看)(似)(豪)(情)(万)(丈)(,实)(则)(不)(过)(是)(“好)(大)(喜)(功)(”。写)(论)(文)(要)(“专)(”,因)(为)(学)(术)(领)(域)(也)(存)(在)(深)(度)(的)(专)(业)(化)(分)(工)(,每)(个)(人)(最)(好)(现)(在)(某)(个)(小)(领)(域)(建)(立)(自)(己)(的)(品)(牌)(,再)(逐)(步)(拓)(展)(。“人)(情)(经)(济)(学)(”、“雾)(霾)(经)(济)(学)(”研)(究)(的)(都)(是)(现)(实)(经)(济)(生)(活)(中)(的)(一)(个)(小)(领)(域)(,但)(小)(领)(域)(同)(样)(可)(以)(“大)(创)(新)(”:观)(点)(创)(新)(、方)(法)(创)(新)(、数)(据)(创)(新)(,都)(能)(让)(一)(篇)(论)(文)(成)(为)(价)(值)(之)(作)(。
    有)(了)(好)(题)(目)(,前)(行)(路)(上)(的)(领)(路)(人)(——好)(导)(师)(更)(是)(关)(键)(。要)(选)(最)(有)(名)(的)(吗)(?张)(晓)(波)(的)(回)(答)(是)(,No!在)(国)(外)(,学)(生)(常)(常)(选)(年)(富)(力)(强)(的)(学)(者)(,诺)(奖)(得)(主)(反)(而)(“门)(前)(冷)(落)(车)(马)(稀)(”。选)(最)(适)(合)(自)(己)(的)(导)(师)(,选)(处)(于)(学)(术)(上)(升)(期)(的)(“原)(始)(股)(”,是)(张)(晓)(波)(老)(师)(给)(同)(学)(们)(的)(又)(一)(“锦)(囊)(妙)(计)(”。
    话)(题)(严)(肃)(,话)(风)(严)(谨)(,但)(张)(老)(师)(的)(脸)(上)(却)(一)(直)(挂)(着)(浅)(浅)(的)(笑)(容)(,两)(个)(小)(酒)(窝)(说)(起)(话)(来)(微)(微)(翕)(动)(,既)(让)(人)(倍)(感)(亲)(切)(,又)(不)(失)(儒)(雅)(的)(学)(者)(风)(范)(。
    “我)(也)(有)(惰)(性)(,不)(到)(交)(论)(文)(的)(最)(后)(一)(刻)(,就)(不)(会)(动)(笔)(”,本)(来)(苦)(于)(“工)(作)(与)(学)(习)(”双)(重)(煎)(熬)(的)(在)(职)(博)(士)(生)(们)(没)(想)(到)(经)(济)(大)(家)(如)(张)(晓)(波)(也)(有)(这)(样)(“难)(念)(的)(经)(”。
    “我)(先)(去)(会)(上)(告)(诉)(同)(行)(,自)(己)(要)(哪)(天)(之)(前)(提)(交)(某)(个)(题)(目)(的)(论)(文)(,然)(后)(就)(只)(好)(奋)(笔)(疾)(书)(啦)(!”张)(老)(师)(不)(愧)(是)(大)(家)(,连)(人)(的)(惰)(性)(在)(他)(眼)(里)(也)(能)(秒)(变)(优)(点)(——有)(惰)(性)(的)(人)(,往)(往)(交)(稿)(前)(的)(最)(后)(一)(刻)(效)(率)(特)(别)(高)(!
    在)(写)(论)(文)(的)(“术)(”的)(层)(面)(上)(,张)(老)(师)(还)(建)(议)(同)(学)(们)(要)(用)(“老)(奶)(奶)(准)(则)(”,把)(文)(章)(写)(得)(简)(单)(易)(懂)(,不)(要)(故)(弄)(玄)(虚)(;同)(时)(要)(经)(常)(变)(换)(用)(词)(,掌)(握)(英)(文)(写)(作)(的)(基)(本)(技)(巧)(;当)(然)(,与)(同)(学)(之)(间)(的)(相)(互)(“拍)(砖)(”、自)(己)(交)(稿)(前)(的)(反)(复)(校)(对)(亦)(是)(不)(可)(或)(缺)(。
    《孟)(子)(》说)(,大)(匠)(可)(与)(人)(规)(矩)(,不)(能)(使)(人)(巧)(。
    同)(学)(们)(只)(有)(在)(未)(来)(的)(学)(习)(中)(不)(断)(“如)(切)(如)(磋)(,如)(琢)(如)(磨)(”,才)(能)(真)(正)(掌)(握)(张)(晓)(波)(老)(师)(传)(授)(的)(“论)(文)(之)(道)(”,做)(到)(“运)(用)(之)(妙)(,存)(乎)(一)(心)(”。
    (张)(彤)(撰)(稿)()
    林)(毅)(夫)(谈)(读)(博)(士)(:用)(初)(生)(婴)(儿)(的)(眼)(睛)(看)(世)(界)(
    周)(其)(仁)(:读)(博)(士)(就)(是)(要)(问)(“为)(什)(么)(”、选)(“好)(问)(题)(”
    黄)(卓)(:读)(博)(是)(一)(种)(很)(重)(要)(的)(生)(命)(体)(验)(|北)(大)(国)(发)(院)(DPS金)(融)(管)(理)(博)(士)(项)(目)(迎)(新)(会)(致)(辞)(
    返)(回)(搜)(狐)(,查)(看)(更)(多)(
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